STEFANO STEFANEL: recensione di”La fabbrica dei voti finti”

 

La scuola italiana tra innovazione e restaurazione
Un grazie a Francesco Scoppetta

di Stefano Stefanel (dirigente Liceo scientifico Marinelli di Udine)

 

Francesco Scoppetta è un dirigente scolastico andato in pensione da non molto. Di recente ha pubblicato un libro molto bello sulla scuola (La fabbrica dei voti finti, Armando, Roma 2017) e me lo ha inviato per posta con una dedica molto significativa: “A Stefano Stefanel che può capire bene “cosa” ho scritto e soprattutto “perché” dopo una intera vita lavorativa. Con tanta stima. Francesco Scoppetta”. Non solo capisco perfettamente il “cosa” e il “perché”, ma anche ritengo che Scoppetta, come pochi, sia andato col suo libro al centro dei problemi della scuola italiana. Il suo libro è venato di amara ironia e di un pessimismo “sistemico” e ciò trova conferma nei fatti più di quanto lo trovino il mio ottimismo e la mia propensione a vedere il lato buono delle cose. Nel libro di Scoppetta c’è qualche eccesso nelle generalizzazioni, ma il libro dalla prima all’ultima pagina sta “sul pezzo” e trasmette la grande competenza e la grande passione di chi ha sempre lavorato per la scuola e non solo nella scuola.

Credo che sia io sia Scoppetta abbiamo un grande e reale difetto: riteniamo che l’istruzione e gli apprendimenti dei giovani non siano beni negoziabili. Il libro di Scoppetta invece dimostra – al di là di ogni ragionevole dubbio – come la negoziazione del diritto all’apprendimento sia l’elemento caratterizzante del sistema scolastico italiano, chiuso tra interessi corporativi, difese ideologiche, mansionari irrealistici, diritti dei lavoratori che non coincidono se non in minima parte con quello del soggetto che viene a scuola per apprendere. Si sa che quando uno scrive di avere un difetto vuol far capire al lettore che uno invece ha un grosso pregio. In questo caso invece penso seriamente che sia io sia Scoppetta siamo “difettosi” perché incapaci di adeguarci all’esistente e sempre critici verso una realtà scolastica che bara sui dati e non vuole assumersi delle responsabilità reali per gli esisti degli apprendimenti di questi studenti e sulla loro spendibilità nel mondo del lavoro e dell’università.

Non recensirò comunque qui il libro di Scoppetta, che invito caldamente a leggere, ma trarrò alcuni spunti dal suo libro per commentare la complessa attualità che ci sta davanti e che mette a dura prova anche un “ottimista catastrofista” come sono io. Catastrofista perché immagino che ogni stupidaggine produca una catastrofe definitiva, ottimista perché constatando che queste mie temute catastrofi non avvengono mai e così ogni giorno mi dico che le cose non potrebbero andare meglio. Questo contro tutti coloro che vengono smentiti dalla realtà e non se ne capacitano prendendosela con direttamente quella realtà: “Non abbiamo raccolto le firme per il referendum? Colpa del sistema e della Cgil”; “Tutti fanno l’alternanza scuola lavoro? Esperienza fallimentare in mano a poteri forti”; “La Riforma Gelmini delle superiori non ha distrutto la scuola secondaria? Solo perché gli insegnanti sono bravi e qualunque riforma gli passa a lato”; “La Buona scuola sta portando più soldi e più personale alle scuole? Il problema è un altro”; “La valutazione dei dirigenti? Necessaria, ma non questa”; “La valutazione dei docenti? Solo se seria”. Si potrebbe continuare ad enumerare aporie e scantonamenti vari, ma in questo il libro di Scoppetta è imbattibile. Le frasi sono mie, non di Scoppetta, ma mi sono venute in mente leggendolo. Speriamo mi perdoni.

 

PIERO ROMEI

Scoppetta ha il grande merito di tratteggiare il reale “passaggio a nord ovest” della scuola italiana: Piero Romei. Da ottimista dico che senza la lettura di Romei del sistema scolastico e del concetto di organizzazione che vi è sotteso non ci sarebbe stata l’autonomia scolastica con tutto quello che ha portato (e che io nel complesso giudico estremamente positivo). Personalmente penso che l’autonomia della scuola italiana sia incompiuta in un solo punto: la responsabilità. Tutte le componenti della scuola, a partire dai sindacati e dai dirigenti scolastici, vogliono una responsabilità “à la carte”, dove ogni soggetto decide che responsabilità vuole assumersi e quale invece non vuole assumersi. In questi giorni è partita la valutazione dei dirigenti scolastici, prevista dalle norme codificate nel 2001 e istitutive della dirigenza scolastica e precisata dalla legge 107/2015. La valutazione è rimasta tema latente fino a che il Miur non ha costituito i Nuclei di valutazione e non li ha associati ai dirigenti scolastici, creando la piattaforma, la formazione per i nuclei, il portfolio, un calendario di massima delle visite.

I sindacati dei docenti, ma che associano anche un certo numero di dirigenti scolastici (CGIL, CISL, UIL, SNALS, GILDA) e ANP in breve tempo hanno preso la strada maestra propria di ogni cancellazione che si rispetti, attraverso l’argomento che ti stende: “la valutazione è necessaria e dovuta, ma questa che è partita è sbagliata, quindi fa fermata e rivista”. Il risultato temo e credo sarà l’archiviazione anche di questo tentativo che sembrava stesse riuscendo. Le motivazioni stanno tutte nelle teorie di Romei, ma lette all’incontrario, laddove la responsabilità non va assunta insieme all’autonomia, ma vanno analizzati preliminarmente i termini e laddove l’autonomia concessa dallo stato alle sue autonomie funzionali non sia quella ritenuta corretta ne consegue anche la decadenza del concetto di responsabilità e di conseguenza anche quello connesso di valutazione, che della responsabilità è il primo corollario.

Le organizzazioni a legami deboli apprendono: la lezione di Piero Romei è chiara se non nella testa di chi lavora a scuola nella prassi quotidiana, dove ogni scuola elabora pratiche e documenti in forma totalmente autonoma di cui intende rispondere solo in senso positivo. In tutto questo le autonomie funzionali sono ben spalleggiate dal Ministero, che, ad esempio, lascia in mano ai privati come Eduscopio le classifiche delle scuole secondarie, lavandosi le mani anche delle conseguenze.

 

VALUTAZIONE ANNO ZERO

Lo sviluppo di interessanti documenti come il Piano Triennale dell’Offerta Formativa, il Rapporto di Autovalutazione e il Piando di Miglioramento (si possono anche scrivere distesamente, non occorre chiamarli sempre come astronavi sovietiche) mostra i gravi danni prodotti nella scuola italiana da soggetti preposti alla valutazione degli apprendimenti che non hanno mai studiato come si valuta. Scoppetta nel libro parla degli insegnanti come di “grandi misuratori” e infatti il grande problema della scuola è che gli insegnanti misurano i propri studenti attraverso prodotti obsoleti (compiti e intererogazioni), dentro scale autodefinite e autoreferenziali, che seguono criteri vaghi e applicabili in qualsiasi modo, con tempistiche che negano l’importanza dell’apprendimento sempre sottomesso ai tempi della misurazione.

Tutto il richiamo al non-formale e all’informale si frange su un formale autoreferenziale, che definisce solo il rapporto stretto tra ciò che è stato direttamente insegnato e ciò che viene riprodotto in modo simile. La valutazione – come da sempre ci ammonisce Cinzia Mion – è un’altra cosa, ma vaglielo a spiegare ai docenti che ancora ritengono che il libro di testo sia l’elemento più importante di supporto allo studio. Così avviene che le scuole elaborino curricoli (che sono per lo più programmi bulimici), ma poi utilizzino libri di testo generici per attuarli. Come faceva l’autore del libro a conoscere il curricolo della scuola quando scriveva il libro di testo? Ovviamente non lo conosceva, così ha elaborato il programma che va avanti per suo conto qualunque sia il curricolo scritto nel PTOF. Se il Piano di Miglioramento prevede, ad esempio, la redazione di curricoli verticali, quello stesso Piano dovrebbe anche definire in che modo vengono sostituiti i libri di testo generalisti, non certo scritti per la realizzazione di quel miglioramento.

Se si cambia il metodo di valutazione anche gli esisti cambiano: il libro di Scoppetta porta un numero incredibile di esempi e di casi (anche tratti da altri contesti) in cui la procedura influenza pesantemente l’esito, senza che agli attori protagonisti (gli insegnanti) venga mai in mente che laddove due metodi di valutazione danno esisti diversi sullo stesso soggetto o sullo stesso argomento nessuno dei due ha diritto di prevalere, ma davanti al dubbio si deve agire sempre a favore dell’incolpevole “oggetto” di tanta confusione metodologica. Anche perché gli “attori non protagonisti” (gli studenti) si difendono con forza: se il compito o l’interrogazione devono avvenire su nozioni, studio mnemonico, ripetizione di quanto ascoltato allora il docente deve dire da che pagina a che pagina interrogherà. Un manuale, una versione dei fatti, uno spazio di pagine, un contenuto: le competenze, gli apprendimenti, il problem solving e tutto il resto lo lasciamo agli studi eruditi dei seguaci di Romei (che non sappiamo chi è ma di certo sarà uno bravo). In realtà la scuola attraverso la valutazione dovrebbe correggere gli errori non punirli.

 

TRE AFORISMI

Termino con tre citazioni da Scoppetta che sono anche tre aforismi da tenere a mente:

  • Si producono competenze insegnando sempre sulla base di un contenitore unico delle conoscenze che è il libro?”
  • Una scuola di qualità non è la scuola che promuove tutti o che boccia molto: è quella che insegna bene e fa apprendere molti
  • Nella scuola invece ogni prof. misura a modo suo il sapere (…). La differenza tra misurazione e valutazione non si intende cogliere. Neppure il saper fare è contemplato”.

 

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